Hospital- and community-acquired infections: a point prevalence and risk factors survey in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

Int J Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;10(4):326-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2005.06.013. Epub 2006 May 4.


Background: Point prevalence studies are useful in revealing the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and community-acquired infections (CAIs). Such information allows prioritization of infection control resources and aids in overall hospital expenditure cut-backs.

Methods: A one-day point prevalence survey was conducted on May 19, 2003 at the King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh. Since the survey included HAIs and CAIs all patients were included. Data were collected on the underlying diagnosis, infection if present and whether it was hospital-acquired or community-acquired. We identified the presence of a line-associated blood stream infection (BSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) or a surgical site infection (SSI) based on the United States National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) definitions.

Results: Five hundred and sixty-two inpatients were included in the survey. There were 38 patients with 45 (8.0%) HAIs and 76 (13.5%) patients with a CAI. Of the HAIs, 31.1% had a line-related BSI, while 28.9% and 24.4% had a VAP and catheter-related UTI, respectively. Most of the HAIs took place in the intensive care units (ICU) (21 (46.7%)), followed by the medical and surgical wards with six (13.3%) cases in each ward. For all HAIs there was a 12.7-fold increased risk with a hospital stay exceeding eight days (OR: 12.7, CI 3.2-50.6). Most of the 76 CAIs were admitted to the medical ward with community-acquired pneumonia (34.9%) as the most common diagnosis. Among the 89 pathogens isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common (21.3%) followed by Enterococcus spp (16.9%).

Conclusions: The overall rate of HAIs in our hospital was 8%, with significant risk factors including a hospital stay exceeding eight days. A device-related infection was more likely in a patient with a venous or bladder catheter in place for more than eight days, or a patient mechanically ventilated for more than eight days. Catheter-related UTIs were identified as an important source of infection, requiring ongoing surveillance.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Community-Acquired Infections / epidemiology*
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Hospital Units
  • Hospitals*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infection Control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology