Multifaceted antiviral actions of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases

Trends Immunol. 2006 Jun;27(6):291-7. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2006 May 4.


To defend against external pathogens, metazoan organisms have evolved numerous defenses that generally fall within the innate and adaptive immune responses. Considerable effort continues to focus on developing a vaccine to manipulate the adaptive immune system to protect against or control HIV-1. However, recent advances in our understanding of the innate immune system have revealed that cells have a potent intrinsic antiretroviral defense in the form of APOBEC3G, which is a member of a larger family of cytidine deaminases that are active against HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Insights into how the action of A3G is circumvented by HIV-1 through the action of its Vif protein, and the surprising mechanisms by which A3G is regulated within the cell, offer exciting new opportunities for developing novel anti-HIV-1 therapies that exploit this intrinsic antiretroviral system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • APOBEC-3G Deaminase
  • Animals
  • Cytidine Deaminase / genetics
  • Cytidine Deaminase / immunology*
  • Cytidine Deaminase / metabolism
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / pathogenicity
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Nucleoside Deaminases / genetics
  • Nucleoside Deaminases / immunology
  • Nucleoside Deaminases / metabolism
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / immunology
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism


  • Repressor Proteins
  • Nucleoside Deaminases
  • APOBEC-3G Deaminase
  • APOBEC3G protein, human
  • APOBEC3G protein, mouse
  • Cytidine Deaminase