Localized cell wall modification and accumulation of antimicrobial compounds beneath sites of fungal attack are common mechanisms for plant resistance to fungal penetration. In barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves, light-microscopically visible vesicle-like bodies (VLBs) containing H(2)O(2) or phenolics frequently accumulate around cell wall appositions (syn. papillae), in which the penetration attempt of the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) is halted. By ultrastructural analyses, we demonstrated that the Bgh-induced VLBs represent different structures. VLBs intensively stained by H(2)O(2)-reactive dyes were actually small papillae instead of cytoplasmic vesicles. Other VLBs were identified as osmiophilic bodies or multivesicular compartments, designated paramural bodies (PMBs) and multivesicular bodies (MVBs). MVBs seemingly followed two distinct pathways: either they were engulfed by the tonoplast for degradation in the vacuole or they fused with the plasma membrane to release their internal vesicles into the paramural space and hence could be the origin of PMBs. MVBs and PMBs appeared to be multicomponent kits possibly containing building blocks to be readily assembled into papilla and antimicrobial compounds to be discharged against fungal penetration. Finally, we propose that released paramural vesicles might be similar to exosomes in animal cells.