Introduction: Vitamin K functions as a co-factor in the post-translational carboxylation of several bone proteins, including osteocalcin.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin K(1) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in a perimenopausal Danish population.
Design: The study was performed within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS), including a population-based cohort of 2,016 perimenopausal women. During the study approximately 50% of the women received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Associations between vitamin K(1) intake and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5-years of follow-up (cross-sectional design). Moreover, associations between vitamin K(1) intake and 5-year and 10-year changes in BMD were studied (follow-up design). Finally, fracture risk was assessed in relation to vitamin K(1) intake (nested case-control design).
Results: In our cohort, dietary vitamin K(1) intake (60 mug/day) was close to the daily intake recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses showed no associations between intake of vitamin K(1) and BMD of the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Neither did BMD differ between those 5% that had the highest vitamin K(1) intake and those 5% that had the lowest. During the 10-years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture (cases). In a comparison between the cases and 1,440 controls, logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in vitamin K(1) intake between cases and controls.
Conclusion: In a group of perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women, vitamin K(1) intake was not associated with effects on BMD or fracture risk.