The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Body Image After Breast Cancer Questionnaire (BIBCQ) in a series of outpatients with breast cancer. One hundred sixty-four breast cancer patients attending outpatient clinics completed questionnaires at baseline. The patients' BIBCQ scores were compared with their scores on related psychological measures including depression, self-esteem, quality of life, and sexual functioning. Scores on the BIBCQ for women after mastectomy and breast conservation were compared. Select items of the BIBCQ were compared between women with and without breast cancer. Patients received a second questionnaire after a 2 week interval to assess test-retest reliability. Good reliability was found for the six scales (ranging from 0.77 to 0.87). The BIBCQ correlated with similar measures as predicted, but not with a measure of social desirability. The BIBCQ distinguished between women treated with lumpectomy and mastectomy, and between women with breast cancer and a control group, supporting the validity of the BIBCQ. The BIBCQ provides a reliable and valid assessment of the long-term impact of breast cancer on body image. It is suitable for use in research focusing on this issue.