Synthetic drugs and natural products as modulators of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR)

Drug Metab Rev. 2006;38(1-2):51-73. doi: 10.1080/03602530600569828.

Abstract

Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. These transcription factors are predominantly expressed in the liver, where they are activated by structurally diverse compounds, including many drugs and endogenous substances. CAR and PXR regulate the expression of a broad range of genes, which contribute to transcellular transport, bioactivation, and detoxification of numerous xenochemicals and endogenous substances. This article discusses the importance of these receptors for pharmacology and toxicology, emphasizing the role of individual drugs and natural products as agonists, indirect activators, inverse agonists, and antagonists of CAR and PXR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biotransformation
  • Humans
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Meclizine / metabolism
  • Pregnane X Receptor
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / agonists
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Steroid / agonists
  • Receptors, Steroid / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Steroid / metabolism*
  • Transcription Factors / agonists
  • Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*

Substances

  • Pregnane X Receptor
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Steroid
  • Transcription Factors
  • Meclizine
  • constitutive androstane receptor