Background: Replacement of red meat in the diet with chicken has reduced the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and serum cholesterol in microalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients. The effects of withdrawing red meat are unknown in the more advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy.
Objective: Our objective was to assess the effects of replacing red meat in the usual diet (UD) with chicken (CD) and of consuming a lactovegetarian low-protein diet (LPD) on renal function, fatty acid, and lipid profile in macroalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients.
Design: A crossover controlled trial was conducted in 17 type 2 diabetes patients with macroalbuminuria (24-h UAER > or = 200 microg/min). Each patient followed the UD, CD, and LPD in a random order for 4 wk. After each diet, glomerular filtration rate, UAER, serum fatty acid, lipid profile, glycemic control, anthropometric indexes, and blood pressure were measured.
Results: UAER [median CD: 269.4 (range: 111-1128) microg/min; LPD: 229.3 (76.6-999.3) microg/min; UD: 312.8 (223.7-1223.7) microg/min; P < 0.01] and mean (+/-SD) non-HDL cholesterol (CD: 3.92 +/- 0.99 mmol/L; LPD: 3.92 +/- 0.93 mmol/L; UD: 4.23 +/- 1.06 mmol/L; P = 0.042) were lower after CD and LPD than after UD. Compared with the UD, an increase in serum total polyunsaturated fatty acids was also observed (CD: 39.8 +/- 2.6%; LPD: 39.7 +/- 4.4%; UD: 37.3 +/- 3.1%; P = 0.029).
Conclusion: In macroalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes, withdrawing red meat from the diet reduces the UAER.