Carcinogenesis is a multistage process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression stages and each stage may be a possible target for chemopreventive agents. A significant outcome of these investigations on the elucidation of molecular and cellular mechanisms is the explication of signal transduction pathways induced by tumor promoters in cancer development. The current belief today is that cancer may be prevented or treated by targeting specific cancer genes, signaling proteins, and transcription factors. The molecular mechanisms explaining how normal cells undergo neoplastic transformation induced by tumor promoters are rapidly being clarified. Accumulating research evidence suggests that many of dietary factors, including tea compounds, may be used alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents to prevent or treat cancer. The potential advantage of many natural or dietary compounds seems to focus on their potent anticancer activity combined with low toxicity and very few adverse side effects. This review summarizes some of our recent work regarding the effects of the various tea components on signal transduction pathways involved in neoplastic cell transformation and carcinogenesis.