In Silico Genomic Analysis of the Human and Murine Guanylate-Binding Protein (GBP) Gene Clusters

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2006 May;26(5):328-52. doi: 10.1089/jir.2006.26.328.


The guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) were among the first interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) discovered, but until recently, little was known about their functions and even less about the composition of the gene family. Analysis of the promoter of human GBP-1 contributed significantly toward the understanding of Jak-Stat signaling and the delineation of the IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter elements. In this study, we have examined the genomic arrangement and composition of the GBPs in both mouse and humans. There are seven GBP paralogs in humans and at least one pseudogene, all of which are located in a cluster of genes on chromosome 1. Five of the six MuGBPs and a GBP pseudogene are clustered in a syntenic region on chromosome 3. The sixth MuGBP, MuGBP-4, and three GBP pseudogenes are located on chromosome 5. As might be expected, the GBPs share similar genomic organizations of introns and exons. Five of the MuGBPs had previously been shown to be coordinately induced by IFNs, and as expected, all of the MuGBPs have GAS and ISRE elements in their promoters. Interestingly, not all of the HuGBPs have GAS and ISRE elements, suggesting that not all GBPs are IFN responsive in humans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Computational Biology*
  • Consensus Sequence
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Exons / genetics
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / classification
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Genomics*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family / genetics*
  • Phylogeny
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Transcription Factors
  • GTP-Binding Proteins