Interspecies variation in Candida biofilm formation studied using the Calgary biofilm device

APMIS. 2006 Apr;114(4):298-306. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2006.apm_394.x.


An in vitro assay to study multiple Candida biofilms, in parallel, has been carried out using the Calgary biofilm device (CBD). We here report: i) standardization of the CBD for Candida albicans biofilm formation, ii) kinetics of C. albicans biofilm formation, iii) biofilm formation by five Candida species, and iv) effect of dietary carbohydrates on biofilm formation. The biofilm metabolic activity on all CBD pegs was similar (p=0.6693) and C. albicans biofilm formation revealed slow growth up to 36 h and significantly higher growth up to 48 h (p<0.001). Significant differences in total biofilm metabolic activity were seen for glucose, fructose and lactose grown C. albicans compared with sucrose and maltose grown yeasts. Candida krusei developed the largest biofilm mass (p<0.05) relative to C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that C. krusei produced a thick multilayered biofilm of pseudohyphal forms embedded within the polymer matrix, whereas C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis biofilms consisted of clusters or chains of cells with sparse extracellular matrix material. We conclude that CBD is a useful, simple, low cost miniature device for parallel study of Candida biofilms and factors modulating this phenomenon.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms / drug effects
  • Biofilms / growth & development*
  • Bioreactors / standards*
  • Candida / drug effects
  • Candida / physiology*
  • Candida / ultrastructure
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • Kinetics
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning


  • Dietary Carbohydrates