Evaluation of high-risk human papillomavirus types PCR detection in paired urine and cervical samples of women with abnormal cytology

J Clin Virol. 2006 Jul;36(3):189-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2006.03.009. Epub 2006 May 11.


Background: During the last decade, increasing efforts have focused on HPV detection in self-obtained samples, to increase the overall proportion of patients participating in cervical cancer screening procedures.

Objectives: A clinical evaluation study of an optimized protocol for PCR detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types in urine compared with cervical samples in consecutive women referred to the colposcopy clinic with abnormal cervical cytology.

Study design: Paired urine and cervical specimens were collected from 100 consecutive women referred to the colposcopy clinic with abnormal cervical cytology and normal urine parameters. In-house and a commercial PCR method for the detection of HPV types 16 and 18, and a commercial multiplex PCR for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, and 33 were performed. All HPV cervix-positive/urine-negative paired urine samples were spiked with serial dilutions of cell lines infected with HPV 16 or 18 to test the sensitivity of HPV detection in these urine samples.

Results: In all but two cases HPV type 16 was detected. In cancer cases, the urine/cervix HPV detection sensitivity was 88.8%; in cases with high-grade lesions it was 76.5%; and in cases with low-grade lesions it was 45.5%. In all concordant cases the same HPV type was detected in both samples. The urine/cervix HPV detection sensitivity was higher when urine samples contained two or more epithelial cells per field in urine microscopy. HPV detection in 9 cervix-positive but urine-negative urine samples spiked with serial dilutions of HPV-positive cell lines showed that in these cases urine PCR inhibitors did not affect PCR amplification.

Conclusions: A higher urine/cervix HPV detection sensitivity in cancer and high-grade lesions suggests that urine testing could be used to detect HPV mainly when these lesions are present.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cervix Uteri / virology*
  • Colposcopy
  • DNA, Viral / analysis*
  • DNA, Viral / urine
  • Female
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Papillomaviridae / classification
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Urine / virology*
  • Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • Vaginal Smears


  • DNA, Viral