Purpose: To examine predictors of long-term occupational performance outcomes for adults after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Method: This study involved analysis of data from a retrospective cohort of adults (N = 306) with moderate to severe TBI discharged from a Pennsylvania rehabilitation treatment facility. Extensive pre-injury sociodemographic, injury-severity, post-injury personal (cognitive, physical, affective), post-injury environmental (social, institutional, physical), and post-injury occupational performance (participation in self-care, productivity, leisure activities) data were gathered from hospital records and using in-person interviews. Interviews occurred at a mean time of 14 (range, 7-24) years post-injury. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to investigate determinants of long-term occupational performance outcomes.
Results: Pre-injury behavioural problems, male gender, post-injury cognitive and physical deficits, and lack of access to transportation were significant independent predictors of worse occupational performance outcomes.
Conclusions: The study supports the use of a comprehensive model for long-term outcomes after TBI where pre-injury characteristics and post-injury cognitive and physical characteristics account for the greatest proportion of explained variance.