The deletion 18p syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities. The medical problems are mental and postnatal growth retardation, and sometimes malformations of the heart and brain. The individuals have some typical features, which might be easy to overlook and which are: ptosis, strabismus, hypertelorism, broad flat nose, micrognathia, big and low set ears. The aims of present study were to clinically and molecularly characterize the syndrome further in seven subjects with de novo 18p deletions and to perform genotype-phenotype correlation. All seven subjects had terminal deletions and no interstitial deletion was observed with subtelomeric FISH analyses. To define the extent of the 18p deletions and the parental origin of the deletion microsatellite- and FISH analyses were performed on genomic DNA and on lymphoblastoid cell lines of the study participants. Totally 19 chromosomes, 18 specific polymorphic microsatellite markers, and 5 BAC clones were used. The results revealed that the deletions were located in the centromeric region at 18p11.1 in four of the seven subjects. In the remaining three the breakpoints were located distal to 18p11.1 (18p11.21-p11.22). Four of the individuals had a paternal and three a maternal origin of the deletion. Genotype-phenotype correlation of the seven subjects suggests a correlation between the extent of the deleted region and the mental development. All the four children with a deletion in the centromeric region at 18p11.1 had a mental retardation (MR). Two of the three children with a more distal breakpoint (distal 18p11.21) had a normal mental development and one had a border-line mental retardation. There might be a critical region for the mental retardation located between 18p11.1 and 18p11.21. The children with a breakpoint at 18p11.1 had all a broad face, which was observed in only one of those with a more distal breakpoint, otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation of the features was observed.
Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.