Twelve patients presenting with symptomatic esophagitis associated with hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux underwent operative management under laparoscopic guidance. The antireflux procedure employed was the Nissen fundoplication. The authors completed the operation laparoscopically in nine patients. Postoperatively, patients were evaluated with repeat fiberoptic endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and barium contrast studies. Postoperative results were considered excellent on the basis of these studies and complete control of symptoms. The mortality rate was 0%. The only major operative complication was a pneumonia that occurred in one patient. At 1 month follow-up, six patients were totally asymptomatic. The authors conclude that laparoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux associated with a hiatal hernia is feasible by a procedure that has already proven its value during open surgery.