Glucocorticoid receptor isoforms generate transcription specificity

Trends Cell Biol. 2006 Jun;16(6):301-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2006.04.005. Epub 2006 May 11.


Glucocorticoids are necessary for life and are essential in all aspects of health and disease as they regulate processes from mitosis to apoptosis, from metabolism to growth and development. However, responses to glucocorticoids vary among individuals, cells and tissues. Recent evidence indicates that multiple glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms are generated from one single GR gene by alternative splicing and alternative translation initiation. These isoforms all have unique tissue distribution patterns and transcriptional regulatory profiles. Furthermore, each is subject to various post-translational modifications that affect receptor function. Thus, increasing evidence suggests that unique GR isoform compositions within cells could determine the cell-specific response to glucocorticoids. Here, we discuss a new molecular model potentially underlying tissue-specific glucocorticoid resistance and selectivity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alternative Splicing
  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Models, Genetic
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid