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. 2006 Sep 1;111 Suppl 1:S46-52.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.03.004. Epub 2006 May 15.

Black Aspergilli and Ochratoxin A Production in French Vineyards

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Black Aspergilli and Ochratoxin A Production in French Vineyards

H Bejaoui et al. Int J Food Microbiol. .

Abstract

A survey on the occurrence on grape of black Aspergillus species and their capability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) was conducted in France over three years (2001-2003) in 10 vineyards from four winemaking regions with different geographical locations and climatic conditions. During 2001 and 2002, from setting to harvest, the total numbers of fungal isolates were respectively 721 and 711 increasing in 2003 to reach 1035. The Aspergillus genus was essentially represented by Section Nigri (99%) and it was predominant (80%+/-4.6) when compared to Penicillium (20%+/-4.6). Regardless of sampling year, 32.5% (+/-sigma=1.26) of the fungal isolates were OTA producers and 93% (+/-sigma=2.65) belonging to black aspergilli. The ochratoxigenic potential of the isolates and their occurrence on grapes revealed that Aspergillus carbonarius was the main OTA producer (up to 37.5 mug/g). At harvest time, the fungal population was maximal and this was the most critical period influencing OTA contamination. Grapes from Languedoc-Roussillon region were most infested with ochratoxigenic fungi and had the highest concentrations of OTA (up to 2.8 ng/g).

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