Xanthine urolithiasis

Urology. 2006 May;67(5):1084.e9-11. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2005.10.057.


Xanthine calculi are uncommonly encountered stones. When they occur, they typically do so in association with inborn metabolic disorders such as hereditary xanthinuria or Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. They may also occur in association with states of profound hyperuricemia such as myeloproliferative disease after treatment with allopurinol. If the underlying disorder is not addressed, a high risk of stone recurrence exists. Therefore, to raise clinical awareness, we reviewed and report our experience in the treatment of patients with these stones, discussing the underlying pathophysiology and approach to treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Allopurinol / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Fluid Therapy
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry
  • Kidney Calculi / etiology*
  • Kidney Calculi / therapy*
  • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome / complications
  • Lithotripsy, Laser
  • Male
  • Nephrostomy, Percutaneous
  • Potassium Citrate / therapeutic use
  • Renal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Urine / chemistry
  • Xanthine / urine*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Renal Agents
  • Xanthine
  • Allopurinol
  • Potassium Citrate