A total of 63 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates were recovered from urban soils of Hanoi, Vietnam. Of these, 34 were identified to 12 H serogroups. None of the isolates showed larvicidal activities against three lepidopterous insects. Three isolates belonging to the two serovars, colmeri (H21) and konkukian (H34), were highly toxic to larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Parasporal inclusion proteins of four isolates exhibited cytocidal activities against HeLa cells. Immunologically, proteins of four isolates were closely related to parasporin-1 (Cry31Aa), a parasporal protein that preferentially kills human cancer cells. Haemolytic activities were associated with parasporal proteins of the three mosquitocidal isolates but not with those of the four cancer-cell-killing isolates. PCR experiments and nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the genes of four anti-cancer isolates are closely related to the gene parasporin-1 (cry31Aa) but are dissimilar to those of the three other existing parasporins. Our results suggest that the soil of northern Vietnam is a good reservoir of parasporin-producing B. thuringiensis.