We studied 20 Mediterranean families (40 patients) with autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia and thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC, MIM 604360) to characterize their clinical and genetic features. In six families (17 patients) of Algerian Italian, Moroccan, and Portuguese ancestry, we found data consistent with linkage to the SPG11 locus on chromosome 15q13-15, whereas, in four families (nine patients of Italian, French, and Portuguese ancestry) linkage to the SPG11 locus could firmly be excluded, reinforcing the notion that ARHSP-TCC is genetically heterogeneous. Patients from linked and unlinked families could not be distinguished on the basis of clinical features alone. In SPG11-linked kindred, haplotype reconstruction allowed significant refinement to 6 cM, of the minimal chromosomal interval, but analysis of two genes (MAP1A and SEMA6D) in this region did not identify causative mutations. Our findings suggest that ARHSP-TCC is the most frequent form of ARHSP in Mediterranean countries and that it is particularly frequent in Italy.