Morphological, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies were performed on an unknown anaerobic, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from dog feces. The unknown bacterium was tentatively identified as a Eubacterium species, based on cellular morphological and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies, however, revealed that it was phylogenetically distant from Eubacterium limosum, the type species of the genus Eubacterium. Phylogenetically, the unknown species forms a hitherto unknown sub-line proximal to the base of a cluster of organisms (designated rRNA cluster XVI), which includes Clostridium innocuum, Streptococcus pleomorphus, and some Eubacterium species. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic criteria, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a new genus and species, Allobaculum stercoricanis. Using a specific rRNA-targeted probe designed to identify Allobaculum stercoricanis, in situ hybridisation showed this novel species represents a significant organism in canine feces comprising between 0.1% and 3.7% of total cells stained with DAPI (21 dog fecal samples). The type strain of Allobaculum stercoricanis is DSM 13633(T)=CCUG 45212(T).