Optimizing neurotrophic factor combinations for neurite outgrowth

J Neural Eng. 2006 Jun;3(2):172-9. doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/3/2/011. Epub 2006 May 16.


Most neurotrophic factors are members of one of three families: the neurotrophins, the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs) and the neuropoietic cytokines. Each family activates distinct but overlapping cellular pathways. Several studies have shown additive or synergistic interactions between neurotrophic factors from different families, though generally only a single combination has been studied. Because of possible interactions between the neurotrophic factors, the optimum concentration of a factor in a mixture may differ from the optimum when applied individually. Additionally, the effect of combinations of neurotrophic factors from each of the three families on neurite extension is unclear. This study examines the effects of several combinations of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), the GFL glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the neuropoietic cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on neurite outgrowth from young rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. The combination of 50 ng ml(-1) NGF and 10 ng ml(-1) of each GDNF and CNTF induced the highest level of neurite outgrowth at a 752 +/- 53% increase over untreated DRGs and increased the longest neurite length to 2031 +/- 97 microm compared to 916 +/- 64 microm for untreated DRGs. The optimum concentrations of the three factors applied in combination corresponded to the optimum concentration of each factor when applied individually. These results indicate that the efficacy of future therapies for nerve repair would be enhanced by the controlled release of a combination of neurotrophins, GFLs and neuropoietic cytokines at higher concentrations than used in previous conduit designs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Enlargement / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor / administration & dosage*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Combinations
  • Ganglia, Spinal / drug effects*
  • Ganglia, Spinal / growth & development*
  • Ganglia, Spinal / ultrastructure
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / administration & dosage*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Nerve Growth Factor / administration & dosage*
  • Nerve Growth Factors / administration & dosage
  • Neurites / drug effects*
  • Neurites / physiology*
  • Neurites / ultrastructure
  • Quality Control
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor
  • Drug Combinations
  • Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Nerve Growth Factor