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, 2 (2), 343-54

Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

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Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

Y Anjaneyulu et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Abstract

A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced electrochemical sensor systems (sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, ozone, mercaptans and hydrogen sulphide) and a particulate matter analyzer (total suspended particulate matter TSPM), PM2.5 and PM10). The sensor and data acquisition systems are programmed to monitor pollution levels at 1/2 hour durations during peak hours and at 1-hour intervals at other times. Presently, extensive statistical and numerical simulations are being carried out at our center to correlate the individuals living in the monitored areas with respiratory infections with air pollution.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Broad methodological framework for total risk assessment
Figure 2
Figure 2
Various sampling locations and predominant landuse category in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH)
Figure 3
Figure 3
Spatial distributions of oxides of nitrogen concentration in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH)
Figure 4
Figure 4
Spatial distribution of RSPM concentration in ambient air of MCH limits
Figure 5
Figure 5
Spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide concentration in ambient air of MCH
Figure 6
Figure 6
Urban scale air pollution monitoring network in Hyderabad
Figure 7
Figure 7
Components of online air pollution monitoring system
Figure 8
Figure 8
Location settings of online air pollution monitoring station, Punjagutta
Figure 9
Figure 9
Inhalation transfer factor sulfur dioxide in Hyderabad – wind speed 5m/s
Figure 10
Figure 10
Inhalation transfer factor oxides of nitrogen in Hyderabad – wind speed 5m/s
Figure 11
Figure 11
Population inhalation transfer factor for line source pollution in Hyderabad – year 2001
Figure 12
Figure 12
Population inhalation transfer factor for line source pollution in Hyderabad for year 2004
Figure 13
Figure 13
Population inhalation transfer factor for RSPM in Hyderabad
Figure 14
Figure 14
Population inhalation transfer factor for oxides of nitrogen in Hyderabad – wind speed 5m/s
Figure 15
Figure 15
Population inhalation transfer factor for sulphur dioxide in Hyderabad – wind speed 5m/s
Figure 16
Figure 16
Summer and winter ailments associated with pollution in the study area

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