Given the increased prevalence of HIV infection in older individuals, we evaluated the adequacy of HIV-specific health maintenance, age-appropriate cancer screening, and diabetes management in an urban HIV clinic. We randomly selected 222 HIV-positive patients 40 years or older followed at the Johns Hopkins University Moore Clinic between 1999 and 2002. Demographic, clinical, and pharmaceutical data were abstracted from clinic charts. Outcomes of interest were vaccinations, annual rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) testing, and Papanicoloau smears and mammography in women. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables significantly associated with being up to date on vaccinations. The sample was 56% female and 82% African American with a mean age of 50.9 years. Sixty-five percent used tobacco, 10% used alcohol, and 13% used illicit drugs daily. At the time of evaluation, 87% had received the pneumococcal vaccine. Of nonimmune patients, 66% were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 28% for hepatitis A. Eighty-two percent of women were referred for Papanicoloau smears and 56% for mammography. Only 59% completed the Papanicoloau smear, and 31% had mammography. Forty-two percent of patients with diabetes underwent quarterly foot examinations, and 33% had microalbuminuria screening. Risk factors for missed vaccinations include prior AIDS diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.55, 3.13), CD4+ cell count less than 50 cells/mm(3) at the time of visit (OR 6.31, 95% CI 1.74, 22.9), and a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.03, 6.28). In summary, HIV-positive patients are more likely to receive HIV-specific primary care interventions, especially vaccinations that can be given in clinic, than routine health maintenance screening that required referral and evaluation elsewhere. This suggests that if health maintenance screening can be delivered in the same clinic, usage rates are likely to increase.