Is smoking related to body image satisfaction, stress, and self-esteem in young adults?

Am J Health Behav. 2006 May-Jun;30(3):322-33. doi: 10.5555/ajhb.2006.30.3.322.


Objectives: To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults.

Methods: Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n = 483) and never smokers (n = 973) are included.

Results: Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P < 0.001). Female gender was associated with lower body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P < 0.001). Current smoking was associated with lower self-esteem (P = 0.007).

Conclusion: Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Body Image*
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Personal Satisfaction*
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychometrics
  • Self Concept*
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Stress, Psychological / complications*
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology