Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant defect of craniofacial development which has not been chromosomally localized. We have identified a mother and two children who have TCS and also a balanced translocation t(6;16)(p21.31;p13.11), which suggested the possibility that the TCS locus might be located at one of the translocation breakpoints. These were defined by in-situ hybridization as 6p21.31 (by using loci in the HLA complex defined by the probes p45.1DP beta 003/HLA-DPB2 and pRS5.10/HLA class I chain) and 16p13.11 (by using probes pACHF1.3.2/D16S8 and VK45/D16S131). Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis using localized chromosome 6 probes and chromosome 16 probes in 12 unrelated TCS families with multiple affected siblings excluded the TCS locus from proximity to both translocation breakpoints. These data were confirmed when a third affected child, who did not exhibit the translocation, was born to the mother.