Utility of Glasgow Coma Scale-Extended in symptom prediction following mild traumatic brain injury

Brain Inj. 2006 May;20(5):469-75. doi: 10.1080/02699050600676370.


Study objective: To examine the efficacy of the Glasgow Coma Scale-Extended (GCS-E) for the prediction of symptoms commonly associated with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Method: Three hundred and sixty-one participants with a mild TBI were evaluated using the GCS-E and the Standardized Assessment of Concussion. A sub-group of 185 participants took part in a more extensive evaluation, which also included measures of depression and vestibular symptoms. All participants had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, but experienced varying lengths of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) as measured by the GCS-E.

Results: Use of the GCS-E for assessment of PTA duration revealed that longer lengths of amnesia following mild TBI were associated with greater incidence of dizziness, depression and cognitive impairments during the first weeks after injury.

Conclusion: Results suggest that the GCS-E is a useful tool for the prediction of symptoms associated with mild TBI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amnesia / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Glasgow Coma Scale*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Military Personnel
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Predictive Value of Tests