ELR+ CXC chemokines, by direct interaction with their cell surface receptors CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) and CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), are believed to be crucially involved in the direct migration and activation of leukocytes. ELR+ CXC chemokines are supposed to play a key role in several inflammatory diseases and this makes ELR+ CXC chemokines and their receptors attractive therapeutic targets. The first aim of this review is to discuss the potential pathological role of ELR+ CXC chemokines in different pathologies, including ulcerative colitis (UC), ischaemia/reperfusion injury (RI), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and tumor progression. Moreover, the most recently described inhibitors of ELR+ CXC chemokines and their therapeutic indications will be reviewed. Finally, the mode of action and the potential therapeutical use of reparixin, a new potent and selective inhibitor of CXCR1/2 activity, and its chemical derivatives are also discussed.