Antiplatelet therapy has been established as a preventive medicine for ischemic cardiovascular diseases both at acute and chronic phases. This therapy is also crucial for the prevention of thrombotic events after coronary stent implantation. So far, many lines of clinical evidence have demonstrated the beneficial effects of aspirin (an irreversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and thienopyridine derivatives (adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor P2Y12 inhibitors). Recently, it has been reported that the cardiovascular risk is elevated in patients with platelets resistant to these drugs, compared to the good responders. One of the current problems to be solved in antiplatelet therapy is to find out patients resistant to the antiplatelet therapy and improve its preventive effects. In addition to aspirin and thienopyridines, several types of drugs with antiplatelet effects are currently available in clinical practice. Clinical evidence has recently been accumulating for these drugs that can be potential alternatives in patients with aspirin or thienopyridine resistance. In this review, the mechanisms, evidence and approach to the present problems of drugs with antiplatelet effects are discussed.