We sought to assess survival, predictors of adverse outcomes, and complication rates in a more recent series of adults undergoing percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty (PABV) for symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis. While aortic valve replacement is the treatment of choice for adults with symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, PABV has been used in selected patients who are not good surgical candidates. Registries of patients who underwent PABV over 15 years ago have shown poor long-term survival and high procedural complication rates. This single-center cohort study enrolled consecutive adults undergoing PABV between 1989 and 2005 for calcific aortic stenosis. Demographic, hemodynamic, and procedural data, as well as vital status, were collected by chart review and query of the National Death Index. The study included 78 patients: mean age 78 +/- 11 years, 51% female, 90% heart failure, 61% coronary disease, and 8% end-stage renal disease. While 22% had a major procedural complication, this rate tended to decrease over time (P=0.068). In the cohort, 87% died with a median survival of 6.6 months. According to NDI records, the primary cause of death was cardiac in 54% of deaths. Survival was significantly higher in patients <or=70 years and those bridged to aortic valve replacement. PABV in patients who are elderly and not candidates for bridge to aortic valve replacement is associated with poor long-term survival. The decrease in the complication rate over the past 15 years has important implications regarding the morbidity associated with percutaneous aortic valve replacement techniques.