Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) is undergoing evaluation as an antineoplastic agent. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for quantitating vorinostat and its major metabolites, vorinostat glucuronide and 4-anilino-4-oxobutanoic acid, in human serum. The assay uses: deuterated internal standards; acetonitrile protein precipitation; a BDS Hypersil C18 (3 microm, 100 mm x 3 mm) column; a gradient mobile phase of 0.5% acetic acid in acetonitrile and water; and electrospray positive-mode ionization with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The lower limit of quantitation was 3.0 ng/ml for each analyte. The assay is being employed in at least 12 clinical studies of vorinostat-containing regimens.