A procedure to obtain high and repeatable fertilization frequencies for bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen-thawed sperm was developed. IVF frequency of in vitro matured oocytes was increased by a swimup sperm separation procedure (P=0.01) or treatment of sperm with the glycosaminoglycan heparin (P=0.0001), but the two factors did not interact (P=0.23). Heparin was the most important factor in increasing IVF frequencies. The fertilization frequency was not affected by the batch of oocytes used (P=0.38), but bull effects were present (P<0.05). Within a bull, the IVF system was highly repeatable and varied between trials no more than +/- 12% in fertilization frequency with an overall fertilization frequency of 299 379 (79%) on four trials over four bulls. In vivo matured oocytes fertilized in vitro were transferred to ewe or heifer oviducts. Morulae or blastocysts were recovered from ewes after four to five days, while conceptuses were present in the bovine after 25 days (diagnosed by ultrasound). Embryonic development from the IVF system either pre- or postimplantation was normal.