A time-resolved confocal fluorescence spectroscopy system is built to measure the fine structure and localized biochemistry of epithelial tissue. It is found that the autofluorescence excited at 405 nm is sensitive to the cellular metabolism and can be used to sense the metabolic status of epithelial tissue. The decay of autofluorescence excited at 405 nm can be accurately fitted with a dual-exponential function consisting of short lifetime (0.4-0.6 ns) and long lifetime (3-4 ns) components. The ratio of the amplitudes of the two components provides information on the fine structure of epithelial tissue. We demonstrate that the combined depth- and time-resolved measurements with single excitation can potentially provide accurate information for the diagnosis of tissue pathology.