Mitochondria are crucial organelles for life and death of the cell. They are prominent players in energy conversion and integrated signaling pathways including regulation of Ca2+ signals and apoptosis. Their functional versatility is matched by their morphological plasticity and by their high mobility, allowing their transport at specialized cellular sites. This transport occurs by interactions with a variety of cytoskeletal proteins that also have the ability to influence shape and function of the organelle. A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondria use cytoskeletal proteins as tracks for their movement; in turn, mitochondrial morphology and function is regulated via mostly uncharacterized pathways, by the cytoskeleton.