Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction

Antiviral Res. 2007 May;74(2):92-101. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2006.04.014. Epub 2006 May 15.

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, a type I membrane-bound protein, is essential for the viral attachment to the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). By screening 312 controlled Chinese medicinal herbs supervised by Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy at Taiwan, we identified that three widely used Chinese medicinal herbs of the family Polygonaceae inhibited the interaction of SARS-CoV S protein and ACE2. The IC(50) values for Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (the root tubers of Rheum officinale Baill.), Radix Polygoni multiflori (the root tubers of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.), and Caulis Polygoni multiflori (the vines of P. multiflorum Thunb.) ranged from 1 to 10 microg/ml. Emodin, an anthraquinone compound derived from genus Rheum and Polygonum, significantly blocked the S protein and ACE2 interaction in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the infectivity of S protein-pseudotyped retrovirus to Vero E6 cells. These findings suggested that emodin may be considered as a potential lead therapeutic agent in the treatment of SARS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Coronavirus / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology
  • Emodin / isolation & purification
  • Emodin / pharmacology*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / metabolism*
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry
  • Polygonum / chemistry
  • Retroviridae / drug effects
  • Rheum / chemistry
  • SARS Virus / drug effects*
  • SARS Virus / metabolism
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • Vero Cells
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / metabolism*

Substances

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • MHV surface projection glycoprotein
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • spike glycoprotein, SARS-CoV
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A
  • angiotensin converting enzyme 2
  • Emodin