Objective: The purpose of this study was to define the rate of neoplasia in prophylactic surgical specimens with the use of a careful surgical and pathologic protocol in a prospective study of high-risk women who were undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Outcomes of interest were neoplasia that was identified in surgical specimens and clinical outcomes of women who were undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. We hypothesized that older age and having a BRCA1 mutation would be predictors for tubal or ovarian neoplasia and that a careful surgical and pathologic protocol would lead to a low rate of subsequent primary peritoneal cancer.
Study design: A prospective tissue and research database enrolled patients who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for prevention of ovarian cancer. Clinical and pathologic data were extracted for those patients after the initiation of a defined surgical and pathologic protocol in 1999.
Results: One hundred thirteen women met the high-risk criteria; 40 of the women (45%) who were tested had a deleterious mutation in BRCA1, and 22 women (25%) had a mutation in BRCA2. Seven women had ovarian or tubal neoplasia (6.2%). One woman had occult endometrial cancer. Age > or =45 years and having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were significant predictors of occult neoplasia. Two patients with neoplasia that was identified at risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy experienced recurrence. Three patients with BRCA1 mutations have subsequent new diagnoses of breast cancer. No patients had primary peritoneal cancer after risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy.
Conclusion: Age > or =45 years and mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 predict occult neoplasia in women who undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. A thorough pathologic and surgical protocol at the time of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy may improve the risk of subsequent primary peritoneal cancer.