The inactivation of two alleles at a locus on the short arm of chromosome 11 (band 11p13) has been suggested to be critical steps in the development of Wilms tumor (WT), a childhood kidney tumor. Two similar candidate WT cDNA clones (WT33 and LK15) have recently been identified on the basis of both their expression in fetal kidney and their location within the smallest region of overlap of somatic 11p13 deletions in some tumors. These homozygous deletions, however, are large and potentially affect more than one gene. Using a cDNA probe to the candidate gene, we have analyzed DNA from both normal and tumor tissue from WT patients, in an effort to detect rearrangements at this locus. We report here a patient with bilateral WT who is heterozygous for a small (less than 11 kb) germinal deletion within this candidate gene. DNA from both tumors is homozygous for this intragenic deletion allele, which, by RNA-PRC sequence analysis, is predicted to encode a protein truncated by 180 amino acids. These data support the identification of this locus as an 11p13 WT gene (WT1) and provide direct molecular data supporting the two-hit mutational model for WT.