Parvalbumins are extremely abundant in fish muscle and play an important role in muscle relaxation. In this study, two parvalbumin genes (PVALB1 and PVALB2) were cloned from Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). The cDNAs for PVALB1 and PVALB2 were 840 and 667 bp respectively. Both genes consisted of five exons and four introns, encoded 109 amino acids, and were of beta lineage. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, expression of PVALB1 was detected in all 10 tissues tested, with expression in brain, kidney, muscle and small intestine being 15- to 322-fold higher than in the other tissues. Expression of PVALB2 was detected only in muscle, brain and intestine, and was up to 10-fold lower than PVALB1 expression. A (CT)(17) microsatellite in the 3'-untranslated region of PVALB1 and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the third intron of PVALB2 were identified. The microsatellite in PVALB1 was significantly associated with body weight and body length at 90 days post-hatch (P < 0.01), whereas the SNPs in PVALVB2 were not associated with these traits.