Aims: Bladder cancer, the fourth highest incident cancer in men and tenth in women, is associated with a high rate of recurrence, even when treated in situ, and prognosis is poor once the cancer metastasizes to distant sites. Based on anticancer properties, we investigated the effect of a mixture of lysine, proline, arginine, ascorbic acid, and green tea extract on human bladder cancer cells T-24 by measuring: proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, and cancer cell invasive potential.
Methods: Human bladder cancer cells T-24 (ATCC) were grown in McCoy medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin (100 U/mL) and streptomycin (100 mg/mL) in 24-well tissue culture plates. At near confluence, the cells were treated with the nutrient mixture dissolved in media and tested at 0, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 microg/mL in triplicate at each dose. Cells were also treated with PMA 200 ng/mL to study enhanced MMP-9 activity. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, MMP activity by gelatinase zymography, and invasion through Matrigel.
Results: Nutrient mixture inhibited the T-24 cell secretion of MMP-2 and -9, with virtual total inhibition of MMP-2 at 500 microg/mL and MMP-9 at 100 microg/mL. The nutrient mixture significantly reduced the invasion of human bladder cancer cells T-24 through Matrigel in a dose-dependent fashion, with 95% inhibition at 500 microg/mL and 100% at 1000 microg/mL nutrient mixture (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that our nutrient mixture is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment of bladder cancer, by inhibiting critical steps in cancer development and spread, such as MMP secretion and invasion.