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Comparative Study
. 2006 Jul;96(7):1293-9.
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.056929. Epub 2006 May 30.

The Widening Gap in Mortality by Educational Level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001

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Free PMC article
Comparative Study

The Widening Gap in Mortality by Educational Level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001

Michael Murphy et al. Am J Public Health. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Objectives: We examined trends in the relation between educational level and adult mortality in the Russian Federation in the period 1989 through 2001.

Methods: We used a convenience cohort based on survey respondents' information about age, survival status, and educational level of close relatives, and applied modified indirect demographic techniques to stratify mortality rates by educational level in the study period. A random sample of 7172 respondents (response rate=61%) provided full information on 10440 relatives.

Results: The mortality advantage of better-educated men and women in 1980 increased substantially by 2001. In 1980, life expectancy at age 20 for university-educated men was 3 years greater than for men with elementary education only, but was 11 years greater by 2001, reflecting not only declining life expectancy in less-educated men but also an improvement among better-educated men. Similar patterns were seen in women.

Conclusions: The well-documented mortality increases seen in Russia after 1990 have predominantly affected less-educated men and women, whereas the mortality of persons with university education has improved, resulting in a sharp increase in educational-level mortality differentials.

Figures

FIGURE 1—
FIGURE 1—
Life expectancy at birth among Russian men and women, 1980–2001. Note. The figure shows official values (circles), the smoothed official trend (dashed line), and the trend estimated from our data (solid line), with values calculated from 95% confidence intervals of estimated mortality rates (dotted lines).
FIGURE 2—
FIGURE 2—
Smoothed trends in life expectancy at age 20 by educational level among Russian men and women. Note. The figure shows values for educational levels: elementary (open circles), intermediate (triangles), and university (filled circles).
FIGURE 3—
FIGURE 3—
Smoothed trends in the probability of surviving between age 20 and 65 by education in Russian men. Note. The figure shows values for educational levels: elementary (open circles), intermediate (triangles), and university (filled circles), together with 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines).
FIGURE 4—
FIGURE 4—
Smoothed trends in the probability of surviving between age 20 and 65 by education in Russian women. Note. The figure shows values for educational levels: elementary (open circles), intermediate (triangles), and university (filled circles), together with 95% confidence intervals (dotted lines).

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