The effect of diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin on the activities of peroxisomal oxidases and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in various rat tissues were investigated. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, D-amino acid oxidase and L-alpha-hydroxyacid oxidase were measured by a sensitive spectrophotometric method using dichlorofluorescein/peroxidase as the detector of H2O2. Acyl-CoA oxidase activity was increased most markedly in the heart of diabetic rats, less markedly in the liver, and tended to be increased in the kidneys. The activities of other peroxisomal oxidases were much lower than that of acyl-CoA oxidase in the liver and kidneys, and were undetectable in the heart. Catalase activity was decreased in the liver and kidneys of diabetics, and was increased in the heart. Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased more markedly in the kidneys of the diabetics, and less markedly in the heart than in the liver. Lipid peroxide level was higher in the kidneys of the diabetics than in the controls, unchanged in the heart, and was lower in the liver of the diabetics than in the controls. Thus, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and the H2O2 production coupled with that, were activated in various tissues of diabetic rats, presumably as a part of the overall increase in lipid oxidation. However, they did not appear to contribute to the enhanced oxidative stress induced by diabetes mellitus.