Although the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor has been implicated in memory consolidation, previous studies have not examined whether it is involved in extinction. Here we show that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor blockade in the hippocampus disrupts extinction of aversive memory. Male rats were trained in inhibitory avoidance conditioning and then returned repeatedly to the training context without shock on a daily basis for 3 days. Infusion of a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist or the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin into the dorsal hippocampus immediately after the first extinction session blocked extinction. These drugs did not affect performance in subsequent sessions when the first extinction session (1 day after training) was omitted. The results indicate that hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors are involved in memory extinction.