Static and dynamic standing balance: test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children

Eur J Pediatr. 2006 Nov;165(11):779-86. doi: 10.1007/s00431-006-0173-5.


Introduction: Based on the literature, reliability reports and normative data for bilateral stance assessments in elementary schoolchildren are limited. The present study was designed to report test-retest reliability and reference values for postural stability in 9 to 10 years old schoolchildren using the Balance Master system.

Materials and methods: Twenty children participated in the reproducibility study (mean age 10.1+/-0.7) including test and retest measurement with a one-week interval. The modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB) quantified children's static standing balance. The test for the limits of stability (LOS) measured dynamic standing balance. The study sample to determine reference values consisted of 99 children (mean age 9.8+/0.5).

Results: The ICCs for inter-item reliability of the four sensory conditions of the mCTSIB showed fair to excellent reliability (ICCs between 0.62 and 0.80). The reproducibility between test and retest was non-significant for the condition 'firm surface with eyes closed' (ICC of 0.37), fair to good for the three other sensory conditions (ICCs between 0.59 and 0.68), and excellent for the composite sway velocity (ICC of 0.77). For all LOS parameters, the significant ICCs showed fair to good reproducibility (ICCs between 0.44 and 0.62), with the exception of the non-significant ICC for the composite reaction time. The ICCs for the separate LOS parameters showed fair to good and excellent reliability for nine parameters (ICCs between 0.46 and 0.81), while 11 separate LOS scores did not demonstrate significant ICCs.

Discussion: Analysing reference values, girls performed better on all the composite balance parameters compared to boys, with the exception of reaction time and movement velocity. No differences were found on standing balance scores between 9 and 10 year olds.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the Balance Master showed fair to good reliability for most postural parameters in 9 to 10 year olds. The current data on postural control in children aged 9 to 10 years are relevant for research in other domains within the clinical field, like obesitas and developmental coordination disorder or in relation to back pain prevalence at early age.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological / standards
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postural Balance / physiology*
  • Posture / physiology
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results