Although racial segregation is associated with health status, few studies have examined this relationship among Latinos. We examined the effect of race/ethnic group concentration of Latinos, blacks and whites on all-cause mortality rates within a highly segregated metropolitan area, New York City (NYC). We linked NYC mortality records from 1999 and 2000 with the 2000 U.S. Census data by zip code area. Age-adjusted mortality rates by race/ethnic concentration were calculated. Linear regression was used to determine the association between population characteristics and mortality. Blacks living in predominantly black areas had lower all-cause mortality rates than blacks living in other areas regardless of gender (1616/100,000 vs. 2014/100,000 for men; 1032/100,000 vs. 1362/100,000 for women). Amongst whites, those living in predominantly white areas had the lowest mortality rates. Latinos living in predominantly Latino areas had lower mortality rates than those in predominantly black areas (1187/100,000 vs.1950/100,000 for men; 760/100,000 vs. 779/100,000 for women). After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions, whites, older blacks, and young Latino men experienced decreasing mortality rates when living in areas with increasing similar race/ethnic concentrations. Increasing residential concentration of blacks is independently associated with lower mortality in older blacks; similarly, increasing residential concentration of Latinos and whites is associated with lower mortality in young Latino men and whites, respectively.