This paper presents the 12th update of the human obesity gene map, which incorporates published results up to the end of October 2005. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity, quantitative trait loci (QTL) from animal cross-breeding experiments, association studies with candidate genes, and linkages from genome scans is reviewed. As of October 2005, 176 human obesity cases due to single-gene mutations in 11 different genes have been reported, 50 loci related to Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. There are 244 genes that, when mutated or expressed as transgenes in the mouse, result in phenotypes that affect body weight and adiposity. The number of QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 408. The number of human obesity QTLs derived from genome scans continues to grow, and we now have 253 QTLs for obesity-related phenotypes from 61 genome-wide scans. A total of 52 genomic regions harbor QTLs supported by two or more studies. The number of studies reporting associations between DNA sequence variation in specific genes and obesity phenotypes has also increased considerably, with 426 findings of positive associations with 127 candidate genes. A promising observation is that 22 genes are each supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. The electronic version of the map with links to useful publications and relevant sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.