A guide to benzodiazepine selection. Part II: Clinical aspects

Can J Psychiatry. 1991 Feb;36(1):62-73. doi: 10.1177/070674379103600117.


To suit the specific needs of various clinical situations, selection of an appropriate benzodiazepine derivative should be based on consideration of their different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Benzodiazepine derivatives that are rapidly eliminated produce the most pronounced rebound and withdrawal syndromes. Benzodiazepines that are slowly absorbed and slowly eliminated are most appropriate for the anxious patient, since these derivatives produce a gradual and sustained anxiolytic effect. Rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated benzodiazepines are usually more appropriate for patients with sleep disturbances, since the rapid absorption induces sleep and the slower elimination rate may induce less tolerance to the sedative effect. Rational selection of a benzodiazepine for the elderly and for the suspected drug abuser is more problematic. The relevant pharmacokinetic and clinical considerations for these users are discussed. Certain derivatives may possess pharmacodynamic properties not shared by the entire benzodiazepine class; empirical studies have suggested the existence of anti-panic properties for alprazolam and clonazepam, antidepressant properties for alprazolam, and anti-manic properties for clonazepam and possibly lorazepam.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Anxiety Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Depressive Disorder / drug therapy*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Panic / drug effects*
  • Psychomotor Agitation / drug therapy*
  • Psychomotor Agitation / psychology


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Benzodiazepines