Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma commonly presents with malabsorption, and debate continues as to whether adult-onset coeliac disease (CD) is itself a form of low-grade lymphoma. A 59-year-old man with adult-onset CD required resection of a segment of oedematous jejunum. Histological examination of this tissue revealed an intense intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Immunophenotypic (CD3-, CD4-, CD8-, CD34-, and CD45 RO-) and cytogenetic (deletion of the Y chromosome and chromosome 9) abnormalities were found, together with monoclonal T-cell-receptor gene rearrangements. Some patients with adult-onset CD may have low-grade lymphoma from the outset of their illness.