Sensitivity enhancement, assignment, and distance measurement in 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy for paramagnetic systems under fast magic angle spinning

J Magn Reson. 2006 Aug;181(2):233-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2006.05.008. Epub 2006 Jun 5.


Despite success of previous studies, high-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) of paramagnetic systems has been still largely unexplored because of limited sensitivity/resolution and difficulty in assignment due to large paramagnetic shifts. Recently, we demonstrated that an approach using very-fast magic angle spinning (VFMAS; spinning speed 20kHz) enhances resolution/sensitivity in (13)C SSNMR for paramagnetic complexes [Y. Ishii, S. Chimon, N.P. Wickramasinghe, A new approach in 1D and 2D (13)C high resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of paramagnetic organometallic complexes by very fast magic-angle spinning, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 3438-3439]. In this study, we present a new strategy for sensitivity enhancement, signal assignment, and distance measurement in (13)C SSNMR under VFMAS for unlabeled paramagnetic complexes using recoupling-based polarization transfer. As a robust alternative of cross-polarization (CP), rapid application of recoupling-based polarization transfer under VFMAS is proposed. In the present approach, a dipolar-based analog of INEPT (dipolar INEPT) methods is used for polarization transfer and a (13)C signal is observed under VFMAS without (1)H decoupling. The resulting low duty factor permits rapid signal accumulation without probe arcing at recycle times ( approximately 3 ms/scan) matched to short (1)H T(1) values of small paramagnetic systems ( approximately 1 ms). Experiments on Cu(dl-Ala)(2) showed that the fast repetition approach under VFMAS provided sensitivity enhancement by a factor of 8-66 for a given sample, compared with the (13)C MAS spectrum under moderate MAS at 5kHz. The applicability of this approach was also demonstrated for a more challenging system, Mn(acac)(3), for which (13)C and (1)H paramagnetic shift dispersions reach 1500 and 700 ppm, respectively. It was shown that effective-evolution-time dependence of transferred signals in dipolar INEPT permitted one to distinguish (13)CH, (13)CH(2), (13)CH(3), (13)CO2- groups in 1D experiments for Cu(DL-Ala)(2) and Cu(Gly)(2). Applications of this technique to 2D (13)C/(1)H correlation NMR under VFMAS yielded reliable assignments of (1)H resonances as well as (13)C resonances for Cu(DL-Ala)(2) and Mn(acac)(3). Quantitative analysis of cross-peak intensities in 2D (13)C/(1)H correlation NMR spectra of Cu(DL-Ala)(2) provided distance information between non-bonded (13)C-(1)H pairs in the paramagnetic system.