A set of recombineering plasmids for gram-negative bacteria

Gene. 2006 Sep 1;379:109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2006.04.018. Epub 2006 May 4.


We have constructed a set of plasmids that can be used to express recombineering functions in some gram-negative bacteria, thereby facilitating in vivo genetic manipulations. These plasmids include an origin of replication and a segment of the bacteriophage lambda genome comprising the red genes (exo, bet and gam) under their native control. These constructs do not require the anti-termination event normally required for Red expression, making their application more likely in divergent species. Some of the plasmids have temperature-sensitive replicons to simplify curing. In creating these vectors we developed two useful recombineering applications. Any gene linked to a drug marker can be retrieved by gap-repair using only a plasmid origin and target homologies. A plasmid origin of replication can be changed to a different origin by targeted replacement, to potentially alter its copy number and host range. Both these techniques will prove useful for manipulation of plasmids in vivo. Most of the Red plasmid constructs catalyzed efficient recombination in E. coli with a low level of uninduced background recombination. These Red plasmids have been successfully tested in Salmonella, and we anticipate that that they will provide efficient recombination in other related gram-negative bacteria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophage lambda / genetics
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism
  • Genetic Engineering*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / genetics*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / metabolism
  • Models, Genetic
  • Oligonucleotides / genetics
  • Oligonucleotides / metabolism
  • Plasmids / genetics*
  • Plasmids / metabolism
  • Prophages / genetics
  • Prophages / metabolism
  • Recombination, Genetic*
  • Salmonella / genetics
  • Salmonella / metabolism*


  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Oligonucleotides