Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic window and a wide interindividual variation in its pharmacokinetics. The cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and the ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) genes play an important role in the tacrolimus disposition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether CYP3A and ABCB1 polymorphisms are associated with the area under the time concentration curve (AUC0-12) calculated using a two time point sample strategy. The CYP3A and ABCB1 genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays in 103 Chinese renal transplant recipients and consequently related to their dose-normalized (dn)AUC0-12. A significant allele-dependent effect (Kruskal-Wallis; p < 0.001) was observed between the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism and the dnAUC0-12. Multiple regression analysis showed that the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism is the most significant independent variable and explained 35% of the dose requirement variability in relation to tacrolimus use. Regarding the ABCB1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms, a trend was observed between the different genotypes and the dnAUC0-12. In conclusion, the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism may be an important factor in determining the dose requirement for tacrolimus and genotyping can help determine the initial daily dose required by individual patients for adequate immunosuppression.