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, 360 (1), 133-44

The Third 20 Amino Acid Repeat Is the Tightest Binding Site of APC for Beta-Catenin

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The Third 20 Amino Acid Repeat Is the Tightest Binding Site of APC for Beta-Catenin

Jing Liu et al. J Mol Biol.

Abstract

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) plays a critical role in the Wnt signaling pathway by tightly regulating beta-catenin turnover and localization. The central region of APC is responsible for APC-beta-catenin interactions through its seven 20 amino acid (20aa) repeats and three 15 amino acid (15aa) repeats. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have determined the binding affinities of beta-catenin with an APC 15aa repeat fragment and each of the seven 20aa repeats in both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated states. Despite sequence homology, different beta-catenin binding repeats of APC have dramatically different binding affinities with beta-catenin and thus may play different biological roles. The third 20aa repeat is by far the tightest binding site for beta-catenin among all the repeats. The fact that most APC mutations associated with colon cancers have lost the third 20aa repeat underlines the importance of APC-beta-catenin interaction in Wnt signaling and human diseases. For every 20aa repeat, phosphorylation dramatically increases its binding affinity for beta-catenin, suggesting phosphorylation has a critical regulatory role in APC function. In addition, our CD and NMR studies demonstrate that the central region of APC is unstructured in the absence of beta-catenin and Axin, and suggest that beta-catenin may interact with each of the APC 15aa and 20aa repeats independently.

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